Products as well as process equipment can develop invisible cracks, which may grow in time and eventually lead to breakage. To avoid these issues, it is useful to discover and analyze where the issues first arise or how the damage looks at a detailed level. This can be done with 3D X-ray techniques, which operate much in the same way as a microscope and can reveal interior damage of any size or scale. This knowledge can help guide efforts to minimize defects at the product development stage. It can also aid lifetime assessments or achieving better documentation.

Mineral Formation in Heat Exhangers