Depositions can build up in products and process equipment which in time may lead to defects and breakdowns. This can be calcification in private home heat-exchangers. To improve such fouling, it is useful to know where, how, and how fast the depositions come to. This information can be uncovered with X-ray techniques which can play the role of a massive microscope. Understanding the processes behind depositions may save costly warranty returns or repairs and can assist the development of more durable products.

Mineral Formation in Heat Exhangers